|Distribution||The bovines compose one of the largest families of the even-toed hoofed animals. The domesticated bovine cows seem to have originated from ancient India where they are much respected as life-giving creatures. The herders then moved on to North Africa and Europe. Cows were introduced in North America in the 16th century and reached Australia about 200 years later.|
|Comments||Allergy to beef is not very common and beef can most often be tolerated by cow’s milk-allergic patients. Of 132 atopic dermatitis children evaluated, 15 had positive challenge to milk, but only two to beef. However, beef contains BSA and gamma globulin which are known heat-labile fractions in cow’s milk. There might be additional unique heat-labile fractions in beef which may explain the differing clinical responses to raw and well-cooked beef in some milk-allergic patients.|
|Distribution||The traditional poultry farming view of the domestication of the chicken is stated in Encyclopedia Britannica (2007): “Humans first domesticated chickens of Indian origin for the purpose of cockfighting in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Very little formal attention was given to egg or meat production.” Recent genetic studies have pointed to multiple maternal origins in Southeast, East, and South Asia, but with the clade found in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Africa originating in the Indian subcontinent. From India, the domesticated chicken was imported to Lydia in western Asia Minor, and to Greece by the fifth century BC. Fowl had been known in Egypt since the mid-15th century BC, with the “bird that gives birth every day” having come to Egypt from the land between Syria and Shinar, Babylonia, according to the annals of Thutmose III.|
|Comments||The allergens in the meat seem to be different from the major allergens in hen’s egg. Cross-reactivity may be found within the Galliformes, such as turkey, grouse and squab. Egg yolk and chicken meat may have some allergens in common.|
|Distribution||As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from mammals during or soon after pregnancy and used as food for humans. Worldwide, dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India is the world’s largest producer and consumer of milk, yet neither exports nor imports milk. New Zealand, the European Union’s 28 member states, Australia, and the United States are the world’s largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia are the world’s largest importers of milk and milk products.|
|Comments||Milk is an opaque, white liquid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals. Mammary glands are highly specialised sweat glands. The female ability to produce milk is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. It provides the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to digest other types of food. The early lactation milk is known as colostrum, and carries the mother’s antibodies to the baby. In many cultures of the world – especially the Western world – humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals (in particular, cows) as a food product. Milk contains more than 40 proteins, and all of them may act as human species antigens. Milk of ruminant species other than Cow (e.g. buffalo, Sheep, Goat, human, and many other species) is constituted from the same or very homologous proteins, which share the same structural, functional and biological properties. However, human milk does not contain B-lactoglobulin (beta-lactoglobulin, or BLG).|
The total number of egg proteins is not known, but more than 40 have been suggested for egg-white alone, and up to 24 different antigenic protein fractions have been isolated.
Egg white has been considered the most important source of allergens, but IgE-binding allergens have also been described in egg yolk, suggesting that both common and distinct allergenic molecules are present. This was demonstrated in a study of 11 patients with a history of egg allergy, in all of whom sera reacted positively to both white and yolk. Eight patients reacted equally or more strongly to white, and even though white and yolk could each inhibit the IgE binding of the other to some degree, yolk could only be partly inhibited by white in eight sera.
|Distribution||The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas. One species, Meleagris gallopavo (commonly known as the wild turkey or domestic turkey), is native to the forests of North America, mainly Mexico and the United States. The other living species is Meleagris ocellata or the ocellated turkey, native to the forests of the Yucatan Peninsula|
|Comments||When Europeans first encountered turkeys in America, they incorrectly identified the birds as a type of guineafowl – i.e., as members of a group of birds which were thought to typically come from the country of Turkey. The name of the North American bird thus became “turkey fowl”, which was then shortened to just “turkey”. In 1550, the English navigator William Strickland, who had introduced the turkey into England, was granted a coat of arms including a “turkey-cock in his pride proper”.
However, it is also reported that the name is derived from the fact the first European explorers to discover (and eat) turkey were those in Hernan Cortes’s expedition in Mexico in 1519.
Probably China has the largest population of domestic swine but scientific breeding has taken place for the most part in Europe, notably Denmark, and the US. Meat from swine accounts for about 43% of the world’s meat production. The domestic pig probably descended from the Eurasian wild pig Sus scrofa.
Pork is the most popular meat in East and Southeast Asia, and is also very common in the Western world. It is highly prized in Asian cuisines for its fat content and pleasant texture. The religions of Judaism and Islam, as well as several Christian denominations, forbid pork consumption; the sale of pork is illegal in many Muslim countries, particularly in those with sharia law as part of the constitution, and is severely restricted in Israel
|Comments||Swine is one of the more primitive groups of the even-toed hoofed animals. A fat pig was worth its weight in gold long ago as an unrivalled energy source. Today, researchers are hard at work attempting to produce lean pigs. About 30% of the meat is sold fresh, the rest is smoked, frozen, dried or pickled. In processed pork, casein derivatives are sometimes used as stabilizers without being labeled as such.|