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Genus/species Alternaria
Family Pleosporaceae
Distribution The number of fungal species is estimated to be at least 1 million. Some genera of fungi with airborne spores, such as Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium, are found throughout the world. Approximately 80 fungus species have been reported to be connected with respiratory allergy.
Comments Alternaria is one of the main allergens affecting children. In temperate climates, airborne Alternaria spores are detectable from May to November, with peaks in late summer and autumn. Dispersion of Alternaria spores occurs during dry periods. These feature higher wind velocity and lower relative humidity, which result in peak dispersion during sunny afternoon periods.
Images alternariaalternaria
Genus/species Aspergillus terreus
Family Trichocomaceae
Distribution A total of 1,026 clinical isolates were obtained during September 2011-September 2013 from hospitals, clinics, and state public health laboratories across 22 states, including Arizona (n = 17), California (n = 139), Connecticut (n = 140), Florida (n = 78), Georgia (n = 133), Iowa (n = 56), Illinois (n = 111), Indiana (n = 13), Kansas (n = 3), Massachusetts (n = 2), Maine (n = 52), Michigan (n = 105), Minnesota (n = 84), Missouri (n = 7), Montana (n = 6), North Carolina (n = 9), New York (n = 15), Oregon (n = 35), Tennessee (n = 5), Texas (n = 8), Virginia (n = 1), Wyoming (n = 1), and unknown (n = 7). The isolates were form respiratory tracts (57%), ears (4%), other tissues (5%), and unknown sources (34%). Of respiratory tract isolates, 65% were collected from sputum and 25% from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens.
Comments A mould, which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals. Aspergillus terreus is a fungus that is widespread throughout the world and found in warm arable soils; and found more commonly in cultivated soils than the forest. It is rarely found in the acidic forest soils from the colder temperate zone. A. terreus is distinguished from the more common Aspergillus species by its compactly columnar, cinnamon to tan (sometimes yellowish to orange-brown) conidial heads, and tan to yellow colouration. Aspergillus terreus is also commonly found in aerobiological surveys, and has been demonstrated to occur in air-conditioned rooms.
Images Aspergillus
Genus/species Botryotinia
Family Sclerotiniaceae
Distribution B. cinerea has a worldwide distribution but occurs mainly in humid, temperate and subtropical regions. B. cinerea is found regularly in soil, though its proportion of the total fungus population is not high. It is considered to be the most prevalent of the 25 species.
Comments Botrytis cinerea Persoon: Fries (teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana, also known as "grey mould fungus") causes serious pre- and post-harvest diseases in at least 200 plant species, including agronomically important crops and harvested commodities, such as grapevine, tomato, strawberry, cucumber, bulb flowers, cut flowers and ornamental plants. A distinct fermentation process initially caused by nature, the combination of geology, climate and specific weather led to the particular balance of beneficial fungus while leaving enough of the grape intact for harvesting. Botrytis bunch rot is another condition of grapes caused by Botrytis cinerea that causes great losses for the wine industry. It is always present on the fruitset, however, it requires a wound to start a bunch rot infection. Wounds can come from insects, wind, accidental damage, etc. To control botrytis bunch rot there are a number of fungicides available on the market.
Images BotrytisBotrytis
Genus/species Candida albicans
Family Saccharomycetaceae
Distribution C. albicans is common in soil, organic debris and in humans where it occurs as a saprophyte in the nasopharynx and feces.
Comments Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide. Many species are harmless commensals or endosymbionts of hosts including humans; however, when mucosal barriers are disrupted or the immune system is compromised they can invade and cause disease. Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species, and can cause infections (candidiasis or thrush) in humans and other animals. In winemaking, some species of Candida can potentially spoil wines. C. albicans, which is a normal constituent of the human flora, a commensal of the skin and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, is responsible for the majority of Candida bloodstream infections (candidemia).
Images Candida
Genus/species Cladosporium
Family Mycosphaerellaceae
Distribution Molds exist inside your home and outside. If you do not become aware of them immediately, they can spread rapidly and infest many places in your home. To be able to distinguish what kind of mold is growing in your home, it is recommended that you get a sample and have it tested.
Comments There are about forty types of Cladosporium mold. You can find this mold in the vicinity of potted plants. They flourish in the dirt and rotting plants. There are times though that Cladosporium can materialize as plant parasites. As reported by researchers, Cladosporium spores circulate within the air throughout the whole year. Although, small numbers of this type of mold exist throughout the colder months. They come out in large numbers throughout the warmer months, especially summertime; with day-to-day measurements extending from two thousand to fifty thousand spores per cubic meters of air. The development of various Cladosporium types inside of homes and other structures varies according to the amount of Cladosporium mold which exists outside. Also, the amount of this kind of mold may be affected by where and what items the mold is growing on inside. Cladosporium mold grows on walls inside your home after molds like Aspergillus versicolor, Wallemia sebi, and some types of Penicillium have initially developed on. It develops on damp or moist construction materials used for your home which could consist of acrylic paints, plasterboard, water-logged wood, and damp insulation inside of cooling systems. Four typical types of Cladosporium molds are macrocarpum, cladosporioides, sphaerospermum, and herbarum.
Images CladosporiumCladosporium
Genus/species Curvularia
Family Pleosporaceae
Distribution C. lunata is reported from numerous, mostly monocotyledonous host plants in many tropical countries but also from Canada, the British Isles, France and the Netherlands. Curvularia is a facultative pathogen and may cause leaf spots and seedling blight. It is also seen on castor beans, cotton, rice, barley, wheat, and corn.
Comments Curvularia is an endosymbiote of panic grass that enables it to thrive near hot springs in soil temperatures of up to 104°F (40° C). The fungus confers this protective effect only when itself infected by the Curvularia thermal tolerance virus. Plants unrelated to panic grass also experience this protective effect when inoculated with the virus-infected fungus.[1]
Images Curvularia
Genus/species Helminthosporium
Family Pleomassariaceae
Distribution Helminthosporium almost always occurs seasonally and the spores are released on dry, hot days.
Comments H. halodes is found worldwide in aerobiological surveys. Helminthosporium almost always occurs seasonally and the spores are released on dry, hot days. Species of Helminthosporium are best known as parasites of cereals and grasses. It is frequently isolated from grains, grasses, sugar cane, soil and textiles.
Images DrechsleraDrechslera
Genus/species Fusarium
Family Nectriaceae
Distribution The fungus, which was characterized by culture and morphology, was found to grow well at 37 degrees C in Sabouraud and potato dextrose agars and in liquid asparagine medium, in which it produced very few spores; at 40 degrees C, it survived for 3 weeks. Different levels of pathogenicity were shown by the fungus when 3-week-old bean, corn, and tomato plants were inoculated. Controlled experiments in which an inoculum of F. solani was instilled in rabbit eyes were also carried out; it evoked a clinical reaction producing irritation and erythema. The F. solani isolated from eyes was the same species as that isolated by an agar plate method with Fusarium-selective medium from sugar cane, bean, tomato, or corn fields throughout December 1976 to November 1977.
Comments Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants. Most species are harmlesssaprobes, and are relatively abundant members of the soil microbial community. Some species produce mycotoxins in cereal crops that can affect human and animal health if they enter the food chain. The main toxins produced by these Fusarium species are fumonisinsand trichothecenes. The name of Fusarium comes from Latin fusus, meaning a spindle. Images
Images Fusarium
Genus/species Mucor
Family Mucoraceae
Distribution The Zygomycete species were isolated occasionally from flowers and immature fruits, but increased markedly on ripe fruits late in the season. In contrast, Botrytis cinerea was present at consistently high levels on strawberry flowers and fruits from the onset of flowering to the end of the harvesting season. This difference in distribution is due to the susceptibility of strawberry flowers and fruits at all stages of development to infection by Botrytis, whereas the Zygomycetes are only able to infect ripe and damaged white fruits. All species showed a greater potential to infect from a food base compared to a spore inoculum, and damaged fruits were invariably more susceptible to infection than undamaged fruits. The incidence of Mucor piriformis on flowers and fruits increased noticeably when rainsplash occurred, indicating the presence of this species in the soil and debris.
Comments Colonies of this fungal genus are typically coloured white to beige or grey and are fast-growing. Colonies on culture medium may grow to several centimetres in height. Older colonies become grey to brown in colour due to the development of spores. Mucor spores or sporangiospores can be simple or branched and form apical, globular sporangia that are supported and elevated by a column-shaped columella. Mucor species can be differentiated from moulds of the genera Albsidia, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus by the shape and insertion of the columella, and the lack of rhizoids. Some Mucor species produce chlamydospores.
Images MucorMucor
Genus/species Ascomycetous
Family Trichocomaceae
Distribution While Aspergillus species tend to frequent warmer tropical regions, Penicillium have the greatest proportion of their species growing in temperate areas. Commonly found in house dust. Penicillium species are most commonly found in soils, cellulose materials (plants, wood, paper, etc.), foods, grains, and compost piles. Indoors Penicillium can be associated with carpet, wallpaper, organic substances, and is also known to grow within fiberglass duct insulation. Grows in water damaged buildings on wallpaper, wallpaper glue, decaying fabrics, moist chipboards, and behind paint. Also found in blue rot of apples, dried foodstuffs, cheeses, fresh herbs, spices, dry cereals, nuts, onions, and oranges. Often found growing outside in soil, decaying plant debris, compost piles and fruit rot. Often found growing indoors on water damaged building materials as well as on food items (dried foods, cheeses, fruits, herbs, spices, cereals)
Comments Penicillium species can cause allergic and asthmatic reaction in susceptible individuals. Common allergenic effects are: Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma),Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Cheese washer's lung, Woodman's lung, Moldy wall hypersensitivity.
Images PenicilliumPenicillium
Genus/species Phoma betae
Family Incertae sedis
Distribution Phoma Sacc. is an ubiquitous fungus, which has been reported from plants, soil, human beings, animals, and air.
Comments Mould growth may occur on fermented meat products. Spores are colorless and unicellular. The pycnidia are black and depressed in the tissues of the host. Phoma is arbitrarily limited to those species in which the spores are less than 15 um as the larger spored forms have been placed in the genusMacrophoma. The most important species include Phoma beta which is the cause of the heart rot and blight of beets,Phoma batata that produces a dry rot of sweet potato, and Phoma solani. The secondary metabolites secreted by some species of Phoma are antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-HIV. Equisetin and Phomasetin obtained from species of Phoma are useful against AIDS. The main goal of the present review is to discuss secondary metabolite production by species of Phoma and their utilization as antibiotics and as biocontrol agents.
Images Phoma
Genus/species Aureobasidium
Family Pseudosaccharomycetaceae
Distribution It is a common outdoor mold, found on leaves. The spores reside on leaves with no effect until the leaves begin to die, at which time A. pullulans begins its role in the decaying process. Indoors, A. pullulans prefers wet surfaces with free water - shower curtains, tile grout and caulking. It will grow on wood, leather and cloth, and also can do very well on water-based paints. It can grow on certain foods as well, such as grains and fruits. While in the mildew form, A. pullulans can only become airborne if the water it is in becomes aerosolized, or with mechanical disruption (such as cleaning).
Comments Pullularia, formerly known as Pullularia pullulans, is now correctly named Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans). This mold is a yeast-like fungus, commonly seen as a type of mildew, and does well in cooler environments. Clinically, A. pullulans is recognized as a serious allergen. One study done in Connecticut evaluated 100 patients with allergy and/or asthma with skin testing for mold allergens. A. pullulans produced positive skin test responses in 62 of those patients! Sensitivity to A. pullulans is significantly associated with more severe asthma.
Images PullulariaPullularia
Genus/species Rhizopus nigricans
Family Mucoraceae
Distribution Fungi can be found throughout the world. They may live or be found in indoor as well as outdoor environments. Fungi are eukaryotic, non-chlorophyllous and heterotrophic organisms that depend on external nutrients and therefore live as saprophytes on non-living organic material, or as invasive pathogens in living tissue.
Comments A mould, which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals. Fungi may have from a unicellular to a dimorphic or filamentous appearance. They are principally dispersed as sexual spores or asexual conidia, and are common components in the atmosphere. In addition, unidentifiable fungal hyphae fragments may be aerosolised in large numbers, which further increases the risk of human exposure through breathing. Unlike many other airborne allergens, fungi are associated with a variety of illnesses besides IgE-mediated allergy. In contrast to pollen, fungi may cause adverse health effects in humans through other harmful immune response, by toxic or irritant effects, or by direct infection. The most prevalent immune disease caused by moulds is type I allergy (asthma and allergic rhinitis), but allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, allergic sinusitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and atopic dermatitis may also occur. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is estimated at 20 to 30% among atopic individuals, and up to 6% in the general population.
Images Rhizopus


Genus/species Xanthium strumarium
Family Asteraceae
Distribution Throughout most of US
Comments This species may grow to be over four feet tall in a variety of waste places and disturbed areas, especially those that are moist. It has large triangular leaves that may be six inches long. The male flowers are found in clusters near the top of the plant while the female flowers are located at the bases of leaves along much of the length of the plant. Pollination (by wind) occurs from July to September. The fruit is in the form of a bur covered with hooked spines, allowing it to be spread about by clinging to fur and other materials much as "Velcro" does.
Images CockleburCockleburCockleburCocklebur
Dock Sorrel Mix
Genus/species Rumex acetosella
Family Polygonaceae
Distribution Throughout US; naturalized from Eurasia
Comments This small plant makes its appearance in early spring, and is seldom much more than a foot in height. Its small leaves (generally less than 2 inches long except for those at the base of the plant) typically have a pair of distinct lobes at the base. The flowers (male and female on separate plants) are tiny and yellowish to reddish. Pollen is dispersed by the wind. Sorrel can grow in moist ditches or in dry gravelly areas.
Images Dock Sorrel MixDock Sorrel MixDock Sorrel MixDock Sorrel Mix
Eastern Dog Fennel
Genus/species Eupa torium ca pillifolium
Family Asteraceae
Distribution Southeastern US Massachusetts southward to S Florida, Florida westward to Texas, Texas northeastward to Massachusetts.
Comments This species reaches its best development on the coastal plains, and is most often found on disturbed sandy soils although it can grow on a variety of sites. Although typically 4 to 5 feet in height, it may become as tall as 9 feet. Dog Fennel sends new shoots each spring from a woody base. It has very finely-divided leaves whose lobes are very narrow; these are alternate. This plant blooms from late August to early November, depending upon location, and shaded plants typically bloom later than those receiving full sunlight. Pollination is achieved mainly by wind. Interestingly enough, many closely-related species in the same genus are favorite sources of nectar for bees, butterflies and other insects.
Images Eastern Dog FennelEastern Dog FennelEastern Dog FennelEastern Dog FennelEastern Dog FennelEastern Dog Fennel
English Plantain
Genus/species Plantag o lanceolata
Family Plantaginaceae
Distribution Most of United States Possibly lacking from some areas of the southcentral US, including S Texas; introduced from Eurasia
Comments This is a common weed of lawns and roadsides. The flowers are borne on heads (well-known to children as natural "bullets"!) whose supporting stalks protrude from the mass of swordlike leaves having distinct longitudinal veins. Blooming takes place throughout the growing season. The rather conspicuous stamens that ring the seed heads produce allergenic pollen that is sometimes collected by bumble bees that bounce from one seed head to another. However, this pollen becomes sufficiently airborne to result in allergy.
Images English PlantainEnglish PlantainEnglish Plantain
Giant Ragweed
Genus/species Ambrosia trifida
Family Asteraceae (Compositae)
Distribution Eastern two-thirds of US Central Montana eastward to Maine Maine southward to NW, Florida Florida westward to W Texas, W Texas N to central Montana, Additional population in SE Arizona
Comments This impressive native annual weed can grow to be over 4 m tall. It is especially abundant in wet areas such as sandbars along rivers. The larger leaves usually have 3 points, occasionally five. The plant blooms in late summer and early autumn. The numerous male flowers are along spikes found at the top of each branch. There are relatively few female flowers that are inconspicuous and found below the male. Allergenically, it is highly cross-reactive with short ragweed.
Images Giant RagweedGiant RagweedGiant RagweedGiant RagweedGiant Ragweed
Genus/species Solidago canadensis and other species of Solidago
Family Asteraceae
Distribution Throughout most of US except hot desert areas of Southwest
Comments Goldenrod is a familiar wildflower of the late summer and autumn, and it lends its bright yellow color to many fields, pastures and roadsides. There are over 100 species in the genus Solidago, and most are native to North America. Some are widespread, such as the Canada Goldenrod, while others are restricted to smaller areas, even individual mountaintops. Almost all species have yellow composite flowers (but at least one has whitish flowers), and they are borne on flower stalks that vary in height from a few inches up to some 7 feet (although most species seldom exceed half this height). Goldenrods are perennial plants that spread by rhizomes. The leaves are usually straplike, with the largest ones near the base of the plant and smaller ones arranged along the flower stalks that develop in mid-summer and produce their flowers heads afterward, usually near the top. The tiny seeds ripen after blooming and are distributed by wind. Pollination is achieved by various bees, butterflies and other insects that visit in search of nectar, and goldenrod is blamed for much human misery actually caused by ragweed which blooms about the same time. However, goldenrod occasionally causes human allergy, and it is important for canine allergy.
Images GoldenrodGoldenrodGoldenrodGoldenrod
Genus/species Kochia scopa ria
Family Chenopodiaceae
Distribution Widespread in central and western US, especially Plains states, and spreading both eastward and westward
Comments This species was introduced to America from Eurasia as an ornamental because of its bright red autumn coloration (and sometimes called "burning bush"), and it has found some use as a forage crop in dry areas of the Plains and the Southwest although it becomes toxic to livestock if it comprises too great a portion of the diet. It is most abundant as a weed in the northern half of the US. However, it has become a seriously invasive weed in much of the Plains, and can be found from near sea level to as high as 8500 feet. It is an annual plant reproducing from seeds, has a deep taproot, and may grow as tall as 7 feet but is usually shorter and bushy if grown in the open. The hairy dark green leaves are about an inch or two in length, narrow and pointed. The tiny flowers are produced from about July to September in clusters at the bases of the leaves, often on short side shoots along the sides of the large branches. Pollination is achieved by wind, and allergenic cross-reactivity with other chenopods is to be expected. The mature plant, after death and drying, often breaks from the ground to spread seeds as a tumbleweed.
Images Firebush/KochiaFirebush/KochiaFirebush/KochiaFirebush/Kochia
Lamb's Quarter
Genus/species Chenopodium album
Family Chenopodiaceae
Distribution Throughout the United States including Alaska and Hawaii
Comments This annual plant is regarded as an introduction from Europe (where it is called Fat Hen) although there may be native populations. Because it thrives in disturbed rich moist soils, it is often a weed of farms and gardens around temperate areas of the world and may grow to be some 4 feet tall. The alternate rather triangular leaves have a bluish cast to them, especially when immature; these leaves, when cooked, have been used as a vegetable like its relative spinach. Stems often have purplish stripes. The tiny green wind-pollinated flowers, which are found at in clusters at the ends of branches and growing from the bases of leaves, bloom from May to October. Reproduction is by seed.
Images Lamb's QuarterLamb's QuarterLamb's QuarterLamb's Quarter
Marsh Elder/Poverty
Genus/species Iva axillaris
Family Asteraceae
Distribution Western half of US E Washington southward to S California, S California eastward to NW Texas, NW Texas northward to W Minnesota, W Minnesota westward to E Washington.
Comments Poverty Weed is found in saline or alkaline areas in much of the western half of the country. It is widespread in the Great Plains but inhabits many intermountain valleys westward, avoiding some of the hot desert areas, mountainous areas above 7500 feet, and the humid areas of the West Coast. It is a low-growing, multibranched plant that may reach 2 feet in height. The leaves, varying in size but usually about an inch or two in length, are somewhat rounded at the ends, and appear to be attached directly to the stems without a petiole, and may be oppositely or alternately arranged. The rather inconspicuous greenish flowers, occurring from May through September, are located in the leaf axils. Although the flowers are wind-pollinated, this species is of rather modest importance in causing allergy.
Images Marsh Elder PovertyMarsh Elder/Poverty
Genus/species Artem isia vulg a ris
Family Asteraceae
Distribution Eastern and Northwestern United States, Minnesota S to Missouri Missouri SE to Florida Florida N to Maine Maine W to Minnesota Introductions to Pacific NW and elsewhere
Comments This is a common introduced weed of roadsides and cultivated areas, and its range may be expanding. The leaves are usually dissected (somewhat resembling those of the cultivated chrysanthemum), of a lighter color underneath, and have a distinct sage scent. The rather nondescript flowers are borne along the stalks, which can get to be 3 or more feet in height. Most plants bloom in the late summer or autumn. However, the plants may form large colonies, spreading mainly by rhizomes.
Images Mugwort SagebrushMugwort SagebrushMugwort Sagebrush
Genus/species Urtica dioica
Family Urticaceae
Distribution Most of US except S Florida
Comments Nettle is a perennial herbaceous plant that forms colonies on floodplains, riverbanks and other moist places, and introduced populations complement native ones. The plants may reach 6 feet in height but are usually shorter. It has opposite toothed leaves that range from about 2 to 6 inches in length and almost half as wide. Most parts of the plant bear hairs that release histamine, formic acid and other irritating compounds, causing an immediate but usually fairly brief stinging sensation upon contact with skin or mucus membranes. Nettle has found widespread use as an herbal medicine. As indicated by the species name, male and female flowers are found on different plants. Blooming may begin in late May and continue as late as October, depending upon strain and location. Pollination is by wind and reproduction is both by seed and underground rhizomes.
Images NettleNettleNettleNettle
Pigweed (Rough)
Genus/species Amaranthus spinosus
Family Amaranthaceae
Distribution Eastern half of the United States, especially southeastern section
Comments This weed is an annual species that reproduces by seed and may establish itself in pastures and hayfields. It can grow to be over five feet tall with bristly-looking flowers clustered along the sides and top of the plant during late summer and autumn. Stems are typically reddish. Leaves, on rather long petioles, are typically at least in inch in length but may exceed two inches. Stems may have a reddish cast. This pigweed gets its common name from the pairs of conspicuous spines (sometimes nearly a half-inch in length) at the bases of the leaves. However, there are many species of amaranth, and they are highly cross- reactive allergenically.
Images Pigweed (Rough)
Russian Thistle
Genus/species Salsola kali
Family Chenopodiaceae
Distribution Central and western US, and coastal areas of eastern states All areas west of a line from N Minnesota, southward to S Texas, Coastal areas of states east of Texas Scattered local areas of other eastern states.
Comments This annual weed is also known as Tumbleweed because the dried plants, a symbol of the American West, typically break away at the base and get blown about by the wind, spreading their seeds. It was introduced as a contaminant in flax seed to America from its original home on the steppes along the Ural Mountains of Eurasia, and has spread to dry areas throughout most of the world. There may actually be a handful of closely-related species lumped within this name. Originally established in South Dakota, it is now a common weed throughout the western US, and can be found from near sea level to as high as 8500 feet. During the early stages of growth, the leaves are about an inch in length, thin and fleshy while those produced on older plants are short, stiff and spine- tipped. The single, tiny flowers are produced at the bases of the leaves. Pollination is achieved by wind. The seeds are unusual in that they contain an embryo without stored food. In addition to inhalant allergy to the pollen, contact allergy to the foliage has been reported.
Images Russian Thistle
Short Ragweed
Genus/species Ambrosiaa rtemisiifolia
Family Asteraceae
Distribution Most of US. All states except California, Nevada, Utah, most of Arizona and some adjacent areas of Oregon, Colorado, New Mexico and Wyoming.
Comments This species is the "king" of allergenic plants, being the most important for allergy in America and the most widespread among several species of ragweed. Sometimes called "common" ragweed, it is a native species that aggressively flourishes along roadsides and in disturbed soil. It produces enormous numbers of pollen grains that stay airborne. The leaves are bipinnately lobed, meaning that there are lobes on the lobes. They are opposite on young plants but leaves produced later are alternate. The plant blooms in late summer and early autumn. On each branch of the mature plant, the numerous greenish-yellow male flowers, which open downward to release their pollen, are arranged in clusters along the sides of the spikes above the inconspicuous female flowers. The plant may grow to be four feet tall but is usually smaller. It is an annual, developing each spring from seed that has matured the previous autumn.
Images Short Ragweed
Wing Scale
Genus/species Atriplex canescens
Family Chenopodiaceae
Distribution Western US SW California northward to SE Washington, SE Washington eastward to central North Dakota, Central North Dakota southward to S Texas, S Texas northwestward to SW California.
Comments This species, also known as Fourwing Saltbush, is a very common grayish-white shrub found throughout most of the Southwest and northward, occurring from 2000' up to 8000' on a variety of sites, often sandy, ranging from hot creosote bush desert up to ponderosa pine forest. It typically grows to be four feet tall. The narrow simple leaves, which may be up to two inches in length, appear smoky because of the dense covering of tiny hairs on both sides. Blooming usually occurs during July and August. The female flowers, pollinated by wind from male flowers on separate plants, give rise to the seeds; the latter are enclosed in a fruit having four papery bracts and about a half inch in size. This and other species are useful as food for both wild animals and livestock.
Images Wingscale


Genus/species Fagus grandifolia
Family Fagaceae (includes oaks, chestnuts and chinkapins)
Distribution Eastern US E Texas northward to NE Wisconsin, NE Wisconsin eastward to Maine, Maine southward to N Florida, Absent from most of the Lower Mississippi Valley.
Comments This species becomes a large tree and likes moist rich uplands. It has distinctive smooth grayish-blue bark. Its leaves are oval and pointed, with short teeth along the margins. During the winter, the dried beige leaves help identify the tree because they tend to remain on the twigs. The flowers, which appear just as the leaves are starting to form, achieve pollination by wind. One or two short female flowers are found near the end of a twig while the pollen-producing clusters of male flowers, borne on stalks, emerge from the base of a leaf and fall from the tree after blooming. By the end of summer, the female flowers have developed into nuts surrounded by rather spiny bracts that open to release them.
Images BeechBeechBeechBeech
Genus/species Betula populifolia
Family Betulaceae
Distribution Northeastern US N Maine southwestward to S New Jersey, New Jersey westward to central Pennsylvania, Central Pennsylvania northward to central New York, Central New York northeastward to N Maine, Scattered locations in Ohio, Indiana, and Virginia.
Comments This birch is a small tree that easily establishes itself and grows well in poor soils, often in pine barrens. It is a short-lived "pioneer" species that flower when quite small, and seldom gets taller than about 30 feet. The bark is brown when young but becomes chalky white when mature, with blackish patches below bases of branches. The thin leaves are about 2 to 3 inches long and rather triangular in shape, with a nearly flat base and a rather long pointed tip; the name "populifolia" suggests a resemblance to the leaves of some species of poplar or cottonwood. The male catkins, which soon release their wind-blown pollen, can be seen hanging in the early spring just as the leaves are beginning to develop while the female "cones" mature later, then disintegrate to release their seeds.
Images BirchBirchBirchBirch
Genus/species Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa
Family Salicaceae
Distribution Western US NW California northward to NW Washington, NW Washington Eastward to W Montana, W Montana southwestward to NW California, SE to south central Alaska, Outliers in central and S California, Nevada, N Utah, NW Wyoming and SW North Dakota.
Comments There is some disagreement as to the western border of the range of this species because of the status and distinctness of the closely-related Balsam Poplar, found mainly in the subarctic spruce forests. Rather large amounts of wind-borne pollen are released from male catkins in the spring. The name "cottonwood" refers to the fluffy down that is attached to the seeds, produced by female trees soon after pollination. This tree, which grows rapidly, is typically found on the flood plains of rivers and streams, but is capable of growing on higher ground. The resin has a pleasant odor. The blades of the leaves tend to be longer than wide, having somewhat of a pear-shape. The wood is put to many uses and the tree is also planted for shade and windbreaks.
Images CottonwoodCottonwoodCottonwood
Genus/species Ulmus americana
Family Ulmaceae
Distribution Eastern and Central US Central Texas eastward to central Florida, Florida northeastward to Maine, Maine westward to E Montana, Montana southeastward to central Texas.
Comments The American Elm is a very widespread medium-sized or large tree typically found in floodplains, ravines and other moist areas, often following rivers far westward into otherwise mostly treeless areas. It is one of the most important North American trees because of its abundance throughout a wide range, its importance as food for wildlife, the uses for its wood, and its aesthetic qualities as a shade tree. Unfortunately, the introduced fungus that causes Dutch elm disease has destroyed a large number of American elms. Mature trees have a characteristic vase shape caused by the splitting of the trunk into several large branches, and smaller branches are typically weeping. The alternate deciduous leaves are asymmetrical and pointed, with a double row of teeth along the margins. The flowers are produced in the early spring, and the flat fruit, oval in shape with a notch at the ends, contains one seed and ripens and falls later in the spring. The pollen is dispersed by wind.
Images ElmElmElmElmElm
Genus/species Celtisoccidentalis
Family Celtidaceae (=Ulmaceae in part)
Distribution Central and eastern US SW Oklahoma northward to W Nebraska and central, North Dakota, Central North Dakota eastward to S New Hampshire, S New Hampshire southwestward to SE Maryland and N Mississippi, N Mississippi westward to SW Oklahoma. Mostly absent from northern Appalachian Mountain systems and Lower Mississippi Valley
Comments Hackberry is typically a rather small tree found in lowland areas, such as in floodplains of rivers or on rocky slopes and bluffs, especially those underlain by limestone. Leaves are rather triangular with a rounded base and a pointed tip, and have teeth at the edges. Flowers form in the spring, and the female flowers develop into small rounded berries that serve as food for wildlife. The pollen is spread by the wind. There are a few closely-related species, such as the Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) that has a more southerly range and has smooth edges on the leaves.
Images HackberryHackberryHackberryHackberry
Genus/species Carya alba
Family Juglandaceae
Distribution Eastern US SW New Hampshire southward to central Florida, Central Florida westward to central Texas Central Texas northeastward to SE Iowa SE Iowa eastward to SW New Hampshire, Lacking from most of Lower Mississippi Valley.
Comments This hickory has rather small hard nuts enclosed within thick husks, hence the other common name Mockernut Hickory. It is the most commonly-encountered hickory in the southern part of the US. Although the trees grow best in rich, well-drained soils, they are sometimes found on dry hillsides. The wood is especially suitable for making tool handles. The leaves have 5 or 7 leaflets and are rather hairy. The bark has a fine net-like pattern. The abundant wind-blown pollen is released from catkins in the spring, and the nuts, which form near the ends of the twigs, develop throughout the summer.
Images HickoryHickoryHickoryHickory
Genus/species Acer rubrum
Family Aceraceae (all maples, including box elder, and Chinese Dipteronia)
Distribution Eastern US E Texas northward to Minnesota, Minnesota eastward to Maine, Maine southward to S Florida, Absent from Iowa, N Missouri and central Illinois.
Comments This is a common deciduous tree found in many kinds of forests, but favoring those that are rather moist. It is prized as an ornamental. This tree earns the name "red" because the following are of this color: young twigs, flowers, winged pairs of seeds, immature leaves, autumn leaves. The flowers form in the early spring before the leaves, and they are at least partially insect-pollinated.
Images MapleMapleMapleMaple
Genus/species Quercus g a mbelii
Family Fagaceae
Distribution Western US S Nevada northeastward to N Utah and southcentral Wyoming, Southcentral Wyoming southward to W Texas, W Texas through SE and central Arizona to S Nevada.
Comments This oak is of the southern Rocky Mountain region. It is usually a small tree or a large shrub, and it grows in foothills and canyons, sometimes covering an entire hillside. It is typically found below or in the lowest forest zones of the mountains, sometimes in the ponderosa pine belt. Its leaves have rounded lobes, dark green on top and lighter underneath, and the acorns, which mature in one season, are relatively small. Pollination takes place in the early spring, the male flowers being on catkins and the female developing from the bases of the leaves.
Images OakOakOakOakOak
Orchard Grass
Genus/species Dactylisglomerata
Family Poaceae (includes all the grasses, including grains)
Distribution Widespead throughout US Absent from S Florida and the area from S Louisiana westward to the southern half of California. Introduced from Eurasia.
Comments This grass grows to be some 60 to 100 cm tall. It has a bluish-green color, and the upper part of the stem feels rough to the touch if one's finger is run along it. Orchard grass develops rather early in the spring in various kinds of sunny.
Images Orchard GrassOrchard GrassOrchard Grass
Timothy Grass
Genus/species Phleum pra tense
Family Poaceae (includes all the grasses, including grains)
Distribution Throughout US; reaches best development in northern half
Comments Timothy grass, a clump-forming perennial grass introduced from Europe, is a rather tall species sometimes reaching more than five feet in height. Leaves may approach a foot in length and are about 1/4" in width. The flower head resembles a small green "cat tail". Blooming is typically in late spring or early summer. Timothy grass is prized for both pastures and for hay, and attains its best development in cool regions as it does not tolerate heat and drought. Reproduction is strictly by seed. This grass is one of the important "pasture grasses" from the standpoint of allergy.
Images Timothy GrassTimothy GrassTimothy Grass


Genus/species Bos
Family Bovidae
Distribution The bovines compose one of the largest families of the even-toed hoofed animals. The domesticated bovine cows seem to have originated from ancient India where they are much respected as life-giving creatures. The herders then moved on to North Africa and Europe. Cows were introduced in North America in the 16th century and reached Australia about 200 years later.
Comments Allergy to beef is not very common and beef can most often be tolerated by cow's milk-allergic patients. Of 132 atopic dermatitis children evaluated, 15 had positive challenge to milk, but only two to beef. However, beef contains BSA and gamma globulin which are known heat-labile fractions in cow's milk. There might be additional unique heat-labile fractions in beef which may explain the differing clinical responses to raw and well-cooked beef in some milk-allergic patients.
Images Beef
Chicken Meat
Genus/species Gallus spp.
Family Phasianidae
Distribution The traditional poultry farming view of the domestication of the chicken is stated in Encyclopedia Britannica (2007): "Humans first domesticated chickens of Indian origin for the purpose of cockfighting in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Very little formal attention was given to egg or meat production." Recent genetic studies have pointed to multiple maternal origins in Southeast, East, and South Asia, but with the clade found in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Africa originating in the Indian subcontinent. From India, the domesticated chicken was imported to Lydia in western Asia Minor, and to Greece by the fifth century BC. Fowl had been known in Egypt since the mid-15th century BC, with the "bird that gives birth every day" having come to Egypt from the land between Syria and Shinar, Babylonia, according to the annals of Thutmose III.
Comments The allergens in the meat seem to be different from the major allergens in hen's egg. Cross-reactivity may be found within the Galliformes, such as turkey, grouse and squab. Egg yolk and chicken meat may have some allergens in common.
Images Chicken MeatChicken Meat
Milk, cow
Genus/species Bos spp.
Family ---
Distribution As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from mammals during or soon after pregnancy and used as food for humans. Worldwide, dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India is the world's largest producer and consumer of milk, yet neither exports nor imports milk. New Zealand, the European Union's 28 member states, Australia, and the United States are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia are the world's largest importers of milk and milk products.
Comments Milk is an opaque, white liquid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals. Mammary glands are highly specialised sweat glands. The female ability to produce milk is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. It provides the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to digest other types of food. The early lactation milk is known as colostrum, and carries the mother's antibodies to the baby. In many cultures of the world - especially the Western world - humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals (in particular, cows) as a food product. Milk contains more than 40 proteins, and all of them may act as human species antigens. Milk of ruminant species other than Cow (e.g. buffalo, Sheep, Goat, human, and many other species) is constituted from the same or very homologous proteins, which share the same structural, functional and biological properties. However, human milk does not contain B-lactoglobulin (beta-lactoglobulin, or BLG).
Images Milk, cowMilk, cow
Whole Chicken Egg
Genus/species Gallus spp
Family ---
Distribution ---
Comments The total number of egg proteins is not known, but more than 40 have been suggested for egg-white alone, and up to 24 different antigenic protein fractions have been isolated. Egg white has been considered the most important source of allergens, but IgE-binding allergens have also been described in egg yolk, suggesting that both common and distinct allergenic molecules are present. This was demonstrated in a study of 11 patients with a history of egg allergy, in all of whom sera reacted positively to both white and yolk. Eight patients reacted equally or more strongly to white, and even though white and yolk could each inhibit the IgE binding of the other to some degree, yolk could only be partly inhibited by white in eight sera.
Images Whole Chicken Egg
Turkey Meat
Genus/species Meleagris/gallopavo
Family Phasianidae
Distribution The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas. One species, Meleagris gallopavo (commonly known as the wild turkey or domestic turkey), is native to the forests of North America, mainly Mexico and the United States. The other living species is Meleagris ocellata or the ocellated turkey, native to the forests of the Yucatan Peninsula
Comments When Europeans first encountered turkeys in America, they incorrectly identified the birds as a type of guineafowl - i.e., as members of a group of birds which were thought to typically come from the country of Turkey. The name of the North American bird thus became "turkey fowl", which was then shortened to just "turkey". In 1550, the English navigator William Strickland, who had introduced the turkey into England, was granted a coat of arms including a "turkey-cock in his pride proper". However, it is also reported that the name is derived from the fact the first European explorers to discover (and eat) turkey were those in Hernan Cortes's expedition in Mexico in 1519.
Images Turkey Meat
Genus/species Sus spp
Family Pleosporaceae
Distribution Probably China has the largest population of domestic swine but scientific breeding has taken place for the most part in Europe, notably Denmark, and the US. Meat from swine accounts for about 43% of the world's meat production. The domestic pig probably descended from the Eurasian wild pig Sus scrofa. Pork is the most popular meat in East and Southeast Asia, and is also very common in the Western world. It is highly prized in Asian cuisines for its fat content and pleasant texture. The religions of Judaism and Islam, as well as several Christian denominations, forbid pork consumption; the sale of pork is illegal in many Muslim countries, particularly in those with sharia law as part of the constitution, and is severely restricted in Israel
Comments Swine is one of the more primitive groups of the even-toed hoofed animals. A fat pig was worth its weight in gold long ago as an unrivalled energy source. Today, researchers are hard at work attempting to produce lean pigs. About 30% of the meat is sold fresh, the rest is smoked, frozen, dried or pickled. In processed pork, casein derivatives are sometimes used as stabilizers without being labeled as such.
Images PorkPork


Genus/species Anacardium
Family Anacardiaceae
Distribution Originally native to northeastern Brazil, the tree is now widely grown in tropical regions, India and Nigeria being major producers,[1] in addition to Vietnam, the Ivory Coast, and Indonesia.
Comments The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen that produces the cashew nut and the cashew apple. It can grow as high as 14 metres (46 ft), but the dwarf cashew, growing up to 6 metres (20 ft), has proved more profitable, with earlier maturity and higher yields. The cashew nut is served as a snack or used in recipes, like other nuts, although it is actually a seed. The cashew apple is a fruit, whose pulp can be processed into a sweet, astringent fruit drink or distilled into liqueur.
Images appleCashewCashew
Genus/species Corylus
Family Betulaceae
Distribution These wild nuts grow in clusters on the Hazel tree in temperate zones around the world. Hazel is an aggressive spreader and is particularly common in Europe as a wild growth, where it has played a significant role in the development of the present forest ecology. Archaeology shows that the nuts were a prehistoric food and the wood a building material, and that tree populations were not adversely affected by land clearance for Neolithic farming.
Comments The nuts of all hazels are edible. The common hazel is the species most extensively grown for its nuts, followed in importance by the filbert. Nuts are also harvested from the other species, but apart from the filbert, none is of significant commercial importance. Hazel is a traditional material used for making wattle, withy fencing, baskets, and the frames of coracle boats. The tree can be coppiced, and regenerating shoots allow for harvests every few years. Hazels have simple, rounded leaves with double-serrate margins. The flowers are produced very early in spring before the leaves, and are monoecious, with single-sex catkins, the male catkins are pale yellow and 5-12 cm long, and the female ones are very small and largely concealed in the buds, with only the bright-red, 1- to 3-mm-long styles visible. The fruits are nuts 1-2.5 cm long and 1-2 cm diameter, surrounded by an involucre (husk) which partly to fully encloses the nut.
Images HazelnutHazelnut
Genus/species Arachis / A. hypogaea
Family Fabaceae
Distribution Peanuts were first cultivated in South America, as early as 3000 BC. Portuguese explorers transplanted Peanut plants to Africa, and from there they were carried by explorers to the rest of the world.
Comments Peanuts are the seeds of an annual legume, which grows close to the ground and produces its fruit below the soil surface. This is in contrast to tree nuts like Walnuts and Almonds. Peanut is a member of the Fabaceae or legume family, whereas tree nuts are not. The Peanut plant is oval-leafed and about 45 cm tall. Delicate yellow flowers develop around the lower portion. The flowers pollinate themselves and then lose their petals as the fertilised ovary begins to enlarge. The budding ovary or "peg" grows down toward the soil. The Peanut embryo burrows into the soil surface and begins to mature, taking the form of the Peanut. Multiple Peanut varieties are grown in the USA, with more than 40% of the American Peanut crop consumed as Peanut butter. Runners have become the dominant Peanut type grown in the U.S. due to the spectacular increase in yield that they allow; they are a very important source of Peanut butter. Virginias have the largest kernels and account for most of the Peanuts roasted and sold in their shells.
Images PeanutPeanutPeanut
Genus/species Juglans californica
Family Juglandaceae
Distribution Throughout the East and Central portions of North America
Comments Bark of older trees thick and furrowed, dark blackish-brown; branches with conspicuous, shield-shaped leaf scars. Alternate, pinnate, feather-like, 8"-2' long, with 15-23 leaflets, those at the end smallest; leaflets broadly lance-shaped, pointed at tip, toothed along margins and unevenly rounded at base, up to 3.5" long, 1.5" wide. Nut enclosed by a fleshy husk, about 2" in diameter
Images WalnutWalnut
Genus/species Glycine max
Family Fabaceae
Distribution Soybeans were a crucial crop in East Asia long before written records began. Their cultivation was long confined chiefly to China and Manchuria. but gradually spread to other East Asian countries such as Korea and Japan. They are now a major crop in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, India, and China. Prior to fermented products such as fermented black soybeans (douchi), jiang (Chinese miso), soy sauce, tempeh, natto, and miso, soy was considered sacred for its beneficial effects in crop rotation. Soy was introduced to Africa from China in the late 19th century, and is now widespread across the continent.
Comments Soybeans are a globally important crop, providing oil and protein. In the United States, the bulk of the harvest is solvent-extracted with hexane, and the "toasted" defatted soymeal (50% protein) then makes possible the raising of farm animals (e.g. chicken, hog, turkey) on an industrial scale never before seen in human history. A very small proportion of the crop is consumed directly by humans.[citation needed] Soybean products do, however, appear in a large variety of processed foods. Images
Images soybean


Genus/species Ostrea edulis
Family ---
Distribution One of the largest cultivations has taken place in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, since the 16th century. An early study from Japan identified oyster shell as an inhalant allergen in occupational bronchial asthma in workers at processing plants.
Comments Oyster is a bivalve mollusk. The edible oysters belong to two genera, Ostrea and Crassostrea. Oysters in warm seas may take 18 months to reach market size, while in cooler seas, up to 5 years. Oyster has been reported as both an ingested and occupational allergen. Oysters are eaten fresh and canned, but also smoked. The Japanese have extensive off-bottom culture, especially in protected bays. The Chinese have all over the world exported a pungent sauce made from oyster extract and used for flavoring.
Images OysterOyster
Genus/species Salmo salar
Family Salmonidae.
Distribution They live in a number of lakes in eastern North America and in Northern Europe, for instance in lakes Sebago, Onega, Ladoga, Saimaa, Vanern and Winnipesaukee.
Comments The salmon spend about one to five years (depending on the species) in the open ocean, where they gradually become sexually mature. The adult salmon then return primarily to their natal streams to spawn. Atlantic salmon spend between one and four years at sea. (When a fish returns after just one year's sea feeding, it is called a grilse in Canada, Britain and Ireland.) Prior to spawning, depending on the species, salmon undergo changes. They may grow a hump, develop canine teeth, develop a kype (a pronounced curvature of the jaws in male salmon). All will change from the silvery blue of a fresh-run fish from the sea to a darker colour. Salmon can make amazing journeys, sometimes moving hundreds of miles upstream against strong currents and rapids to reproduce. Chinook and sockeye salmon from central Idaho, for example, travel over 900 miles (1,400 km) and climb nearly 7,000 feet (2,100 m) from the Pacific Ocean as they return to spawn.
Images SalmonSalmon
Genus/species Crustacea
Family Caridea
Distribution Although there are thousands of species of shrimp worldwide, only about 20 of these species are commercially significant.
Comments Shrimp are swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular abdomens and long antennae. Unlike crabs and lobsters, shrimp have well developed pleopods (swimmerets) and slender walking legs; they are more adapted for swimming than walking.
Images shrimpshrimp


Genus/species Malus/ M. domestica
Family Pleosporaceae
Distribution The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists.
Comments The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree. The tree is small and deciduous, reaching 5 to 12 metres tall, with a broad, often densely twiggy crown. The leaves are alternately arranged simple ovals, 5 to 12 cm long and 3 to 6 cm broad, on a 2 to 5 cm petiole with an acute tip, serrated margin and a slightly downy underside. Flowers are produced in spring, simultaneously with the budding of the leaves. The flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, 5-petaled, and 2.5 to 3.5 cm in diameter. The fruit matures in autumn and is typically 5 to 9 cm in diameter. The centre of the fruit contains 5 carpels arranged in a 5-point star, each carpel containing 1 to 3 seeds. Apples may be classified into 4 main groups: dessert, culinary, cider and ornamental. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian traditions. Apple trees are large if grown from seed, but small if grafted onto roots (rootstock).
Images apple
Genus/species Musa
Family Musaceae
Distribution The countries that produce the most bananas include India, Brazil, China, Ecuador and the Philippines. The top five countries that exported bananas were Ecuador, Costa Rica, the Philippines, Colombia and Guatemala. The United States, the European Union and Japan buy the most bananas. Bananas are among the most valuable agricultural export products.
Comments Some people are allergic to bananas. There are two basic forms of these allergies. The first is known as oral allergy syndrome. Within an hour of eating a banana, swelling starts inside the mouth or throat. This allergy is related to allergies caused by pollen, like that of the birch tree. The other is similar to latex allergies. It causes urticaria and potentially serious upper gastrointestinal symptoms.
Images Banana
Genus/species Vitis / V. vinifera
Family Vitaceae
Distribution According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural". The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year.
Comments A grape is a fruiting berry of the deciduous woody vines of the botanical genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for makingwine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters.
Images GrapeGrape
Genus/species Citrus sinensis
Family Rutaceae
Distribution Introduced from tropical Asia to southern US
Comments The Orange, which is probably native to southeastern Asia or adjacent regions, has been introduced into Florida and California, and it is also grown in warmer parts of Arizona, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. Plantations in Hawaii failed due to the ravages of fruit flies. It occasionally becomes established in the wild in Florida. The flowers, although primarily insect-pollinated, may cause an allergic reaction in some patients. There are many cultivars, and some are better for juice production while others are eaten as fresh fruit. The white fragrant flowers, although mainly insect-pollinated, are occasionally responsible for allergy. The fruit, measuring from about 2.5 to about 4 inches in diameter, contains somewhat fibrous orange flesh and contains about a dozen juicy sections.
Images Orange
Genus/species Fragaria
Family Rosaceae
Distribution The first garden strawberry was grown in France during the late 18th century. Prior to this, wild strawberries and cultivated selections from wild strawberry species were the common source of the fruit. The strawberry fruit was mentioned in ancient Roman literature in reference to its medicinal use. The French began taking the strawberry from the forest to their gardens for harvest in the 1300s. Charles V, France's king from 1364 to 1380, had 1,200 strawberry plants in his royal garden. In the early 1400s western European monks were using the wild strawberry in their illuminated manuscripts. The strawberry is found in Italian, Flemish, German art, and English miniatures. The entire strawberry plant was used to treat depressive illnesses.
Comments One serving (100 g) of strawberries contains approximately 33 kilocalories, is an excellent source of vitamin C, a good source of manganese, and provides several other vitamins and dietary minerals in lesser amounts. Strawberries contain a modest amount of essential unsaturated fatty acids in the achene (seed) oil. Few studies have directly examined the effects of eating strawberries on human health. However, limited research indicates that strawberry consumption may be associated with a decreased cardiovascular disease risk and that phytochemicals present in strawberries have anti-inflammatory or anticancer properties in laboratory studies.
Images strawberrystrawberry flowerstrawberrystrawberry

Animal / Insects

Cat Hair
Genus/species Felis domesticus
Family Felidae
Distribution Throughout North America
Comments Pet allergies are caused by an immune system response to proteins present in the animal saliva, dander, or urine. Allergies to dogs, cats, and other animals tend to run in families. In most cases, animal allergies are inherited and result from a genetic hypersensitivity to these proteins. Allergy to animals may take up to two years. Animal allergens, which are carried through the air, are sticky and collect on surfaces (e.g., bedding, clothing, furniture). Petting, grooming, animal activity, vacuuming, and dusting increase the amount of allergens that are released into the air. Animal allergens can remain on surfaces and in the air for months.
Images Cat HairCat HairCat Hair
Genus/species Periplaneta americana
Family Blattidae
Distribution ---
Comments Cockroaches walk everywhere in the house, drop feces, and spoil food. They shed their skins as they grow and also produce unpleasant smells when their numbers become large. Prolonged exposure and inhaling allergens from their skins and feces can cause allergies and asthma. Children can easily get cockroach-caused allergies and asthma.
Images CockroachCockroach
Dog Epithelium
Genus/species Canis lupus familiaris
Family Canidae
Distribution Throughout North America
Comments The dog allergen is found on the skin, in the serum, and in the saliva. Washing the dog a minimum of two times per week significantly reduces the allergen load in the household. In human medicine for epithelia-allergic humans, the therapy of choice is removing the allergen producing animal. Various breeds, especially those that do not shed hair are recommended for allergic humans. It is reported that rinsing the coat of the allergen producing animal reduces or stops the allergic symptoms.
Images Dog EpitheliumDog Epithelium
Dust Mite F or Dust Mite P
Genus/species Dermatophagoides
Family Pyroglyphidae
Distribution The European house Dust Mite P (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and the American house Dust Mite F (Dermatophagoides farinae) are two different species, but are not necessarily confined to Europe or North America. Dust mites thrive in warm, humid or damp conditions where humidity levels exceed 70% and room temperatures range between 68°F and 84°F. Development, egg production and longevity are very dependent on temperature, moisture, and an adequate food supply. These mites feed on sloughed human skin, spilled foodstuffs, fungi, and pollen.
Comments Suggested Environmental Controls
  • Keep humidity levels below 70%.
  • Remove carpeting if at all possible.
  • Enclose mattresses, pillows, and box springs in zippered encasings - cloth tape can be placed over the zipper of the encasings for added protection.
  • Wash all bedding weekly in hot water (130°F) or an anti-allergen laundry detergent which has the same effect of hot water in any water temperature.
  • Vacuum frequently. Remember to vacuum all areas of the house including windowsills, molding, and areas dust can be collected.
Treat carpeting and upholstery with an allergen neutralizing solution to neutralize the allergens.
Images Dust Mite F or Dust Mite P
Guinea Pig
Genus/species Cavia
Family Caviidae
Distribution This species is from South America. It is found in Brazil on the small island of Moleques do Sul in the state of Santa Catarina.
Comments Guinea Pigs are popularly kept as a pet, but are also used for both meat and laboratory research. The guinea pig history is very long. They known as cavies and are classified in the sub-family Caviinae, which is one of two sub-families in the Caviidae family. Members of the Caviidae family first appeared in fossil records in the Miocene period some 20 million years ago.
Images Guinea pig


Genus/species Agaricus hortensis/Agaricus bisporus
Family ---
Distribution Mushrooms were grown in the underground caverns of Paris in the 17th century. Taiwan and China have a large export trade in Mushrooms. The Champignon mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) originated in France. Today's commercial variety of the Champignon (also known as the button mushroom) was originally a light brown colour, but mutated into the type with white caps which has now become the predominant commercial variety.
Comments Agaricus hortensis is a near-synonym, applied to pure white forms of Agaricus bisporus. Agaricus brunnescens, referring to 'brownish' forms, is a former name and also a near-synonym.
Images MushroomMushroomMushroom
Genus/species Allium
Family Amaryllidaceae
Distribution Onions are cultivated and used around the world. It is estimated that over 9,000,000 acres of onions are grown annually. About 170 countries cultivate onions for domestic use and about eight percent of the global production is traded internationally.
Comments The onion plant (Allium cepa) is unknown in the wild but has been grown and selectively bred in cultivation for at least 7,000 years. The leaves are yellowish-green and grow alternately in a flattened, fan-shaped swathe. They are fleshy, hollow and cylindrical, with one flattened side. They are at their broadest about a quarter of the way up beyond which they taper towards a blunt tip. The base of each leaf is a flattened, usually white sheath that grows out of a basal disc.
Images OnionOnionOnion
Genus/species Solanum lycopersicum
Family Solanaceae
Distribution The species originated in the South American Andes and its use as a food originated in Mexico, and spread throughout the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Its many varieties are now widely grown, sometimes in greenhouses in cooler climates. Tomatoes were used for food by the Indians of Peru before the arrival of Europeans.
Comments Tomato is a vine fruit of the Nightshade family. It is the most universally accepted vegetable among all cultural groups, and second only to Potato as a vegetable in world food production. A great variety of cultivars exist, from the tiny Cherry tomato to giant prize varieties the size of Grapefruit; and though the stereo-typed color is red, colors can range from green to purple, and some varieties have stripes.
Images TomatoTomato

Other Allergens

Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces)
Genus/species Saccharomyces
Family Saccharomycetaceae
Distribution ---
Comments It is a species of yeast. It is perhaps the most useful yeast, having been instrumental to winemaking, baking, and brewing since ancient times. It is believed to have been originally isolated from the skin of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark-color fruits such as plums; it exists among the waxes of the cuticle). It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model bacterium. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation. S. cerevisiae cells are round to ovoid, 5-10 um in diameter. It reproduces by a division process known as budding
Images Baker's Yeast
Control Saline
Genus/species ---
Family ---
Distribution ---
Comments Prior to allergy skin tests, a negative saline control test may be performed. A negative control test involves applying a saline solution that does not include any allergens. Patients who react to this solution may have skin that is too sensitive to allow correct interpretation of allergy skin tests.
Images Control Saline
Coco Bean
Genus/species Theobroma
Family Malvaceae
Distribution The cacao tree is native to the Americas. It may have originated in the foothills of the Andes in the Amazon and Orinocobasins of South America, current day Colombia and Venezuela.
Comments The cocoa bean, also cacao bean or cocoa or cacao, is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and cocoa butter are extracted. They are the basis of chocolate, as well as many Mesoamerican foods such as mole sauce and tejate. The word Cocoa derives from the Spanish word cacao, derived from theNahuatl word cacahuatl. The Nahautl word, in turn, ultimately derives from the reconstructed Proto Mije-Sokean word *kakaw~*kakawa. Cocoa can often also refer to the drink commonly known as hot chocolate to cocoa powder, the dry powder made by grinding cocoa seeds and removing the cocoa butter from the dark, bitter cocoa solids; or to a mixture of cocoa powder and cocoa butter.
Images Cocoa beanCocoa beanCocoa beanCocoa bean
Genus/species Gallus domesticus
Family Phasianidae
Distribution Breeders as well as workers in the food processing industry are examples of groups with high risk of exposure. Other means of exposure are pillows made of feathers, arts and crafts that include feathers, and wing feathers used in fletching arrows. A few breeds of are raised chiefly for their ornamental appearance or as pets.
Comments Farm workers handling animal feeds are exposed to a variety of chemicals, some of which may cause allergic contact dermatitis.
Images FeathersFeathers
Genus/species ---
Family ---
Distribution Throughout the body.
Comments Prior to allergy skin tests, a positive histamine control test may be performed. A positive control test is used to determine if the patient reacts to histamine. If the patient does not immediately react to histamine, the results of allergy skin tests can be difficult to interpret. An allergic reaction is triggered by the particular substance (allergen) that a person is allergic to. When exposed to this allergen, the body senses a foreign invader. The allergen binds to the IgE antibodies. When this happens, the mast cell breaks open to release inflammatory substances, e.g. histamine, which quickly travels through the body to fight off what it senses as harmful. The histamine affects the body tissue and causes an inflammation. The symptoms that develop will depend on where in the body the histamine is released. Runny nose, itchy, watery eyes, shortness of breath and dry skin may all be sings of mast cells reacting in respective parts of the body. Allergic reactions can be more serious and impose a threat to overall well-being. And in some rare cases, specific foods, drugs or an insect bite can result in sudden, life-threatening anaphylactic shock. Mast cells are an important part of the immune system and can be found throughout the body. Inside the mast cells are different chemicals, for example histamine, that cause inflammation.
Images Histamine
Hops (Beer)
Genus/species Humulus
Family Cannabaceae
Distribution Humulus lupulus (common hop or hop) is a species of flowering plant in the Cannabaceae family, native to Europe, western Asia and North America.
Comments H. lupulus is a main ingredient of many beers, and as such is widely cultivated for use by the brewing industry. The plant is a perennial climber growing to 6 m at a medium rate. Leaves are opposite, deeply divided into 5-7 palmate lobes, with serrate edges and a rough upper surface and pubescent underside, on a long petiole. Hop is dioecious, with separate male and female plants. Male flowers are yellow-green, arranged on 15-25 cm-long, narrowly spreading panicles. Female flowers are catkin-like drooping spikes 5 mm in diameter. The plant is entirely wind-pollinated. "Hops" is the common term for either the dried flower heads as a whole or the extract, with a bitter taste and aromatic odour, from the dried pine cone-like fruit of the plant. Hops contribute flavour and aroma and act as a preservative in brewed alcoholic beverages, and are used medicinally mainly to treat sleep disturbances. The extract may be in solid, liquid or oil form.
Images Hops (Beer)Hops (Beer)
Wheat Grain
Genus/species Triticum
Family Poaceae
Distribution Wheat is acereal grain, originally from the Levant ( historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.) region of the Near East but now cultivated worldwide.
Comments There are six wheat classifications: 1) hard red winter, 2) hard red spring, 3) soft red winter, 4) durum (hard), 5) hard white, and 6) soft white wheat. The hard wheats have the most amount of gluten and are used for making bread, rolls and all-purpose flour. The soft wheats are used for making flat bread, cakes, pastries, crackers, muffins, and biscuits. Wheat is widely cultivated as a cash crop because it produces a good yield per unit area, grows well in a temperate climate even with a moderately short growing season, and yields a versatile, high-quality flour that is widely used in baking. Most breads are made with wheat flour, including many breads named for the other grains they contain, for example, most rye and oat breads. The popularity of foods made from wheat flour creates a large demand for the grain, even in economies with significant food surpluses.
Images Wheat GrainWheat GrainWheat Grain

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