|Distribution||The number of fungal species is estimated to be at least 1 million. Some genera of fungi with airborne spores, such as Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium, are found throughout the world. Approximately 80 fungus species have been reported to be connected with respiratory allergy.|
|Comments||Alternaria is one of the main allergens affecting children. In temperate climates, airborne Alternaria spores are detectable from May to November, with peaks in late summer and autumn. Dispersion of Alternaria spores occurs during dry periods. These feature higher wind velocity and lower relative humidity, which result in peak dispersion during sunny afternoon periods.|
|Distribution||A total of 1,026 clinical isolates were obtained during September 2011-September 2013 from hospitals, clinics, and state public health laboratories across 22 states, including Arizona (n = 17), California (n = 139), Connecticut (n = 140), Florida (n = 78), Georgia (n = 133), Iowa (n = 56), Illinois (n = 111), Indiana (n = 13), Kansas (n = 3), Massachusetts (n = 2), Maine (n = 52), Michigan (n = 105), Minnesota (n = 84), Missouri (n = 7), Montana (n = 6), North Carolina (n = 9), New York (n = 15), Oregon (n = 35), Tennessee (n = 5), Texas (n = 8), Virginia (n = 1), Wyoming (n = 1), and unknown (n = 7). The isolates were form respiratory tracts (57%), ears (4%), other tissues (5%), and unknown sources (34%). Of respiratory tract isolates, 65% were collected from sputum and 25% from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens.|
|Comments||A mould, which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals. Aspergillus terreus is a fungus that is widespread throughout the world and found in warm arable soils; and found more commonly in cultivated soils than the forest. It is rarely found in the acidic forest soils from the colder temperate zone. A. terreus is distinguished from the more common Aspergillus species by its compactly columnar, cinnamon to tan (sometimes yellowish to orange-brown) conidial heads, and tan to yellow colouration. Aspergillus terreus is also commonly found in aerobiological surveys, and has been demonstrated to occur in air-conditioned rooms.|
|Distribution||B. cinerea has a worldwide distribution but occurs mainly in humid, temperate and subtropical regions. B. cinerea is found regularly in soil, though its proportion of the total fungus population is not high. It is considered to be the most prevalent of the 25 species.|
|Comments||Botrytis cinerea Persoon: Fries (teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana, also known as “grey mould fungus”) causes serious pre- and post-harvest diseases in at least 200 plant species, including agronomically important crops and harvested commodities, such as grapevine, tomato, strawberry, cucumber, bulb flowers, cut flowers and ornamental plants. A distinct fermentation process initially caused by nature, the combination of geology, climate and specific weather led to the particular balance of beneficial fungus while leaving enough of the grape intact for harvesting. Botrytis bunch rot is another condition of grapes caused by Botrytis cinerea that causes great losses for the wine industry. It is always present on the fruitset, however, it requires a wound to start a bunch rot infection. Wounds can come from insects, wind, accidental damage, etc. To control botrytis bunch rot there are a number of fungicides available on the market.|
|Distribution||C. albicans is common in soil, organic debris and in humans where it occurs as a saprophyte in the nasopharynx and feces.|
|Comments||Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide. Many species are harmless commensals or endosymbionts of hosts including humans; however, when mucosal barriers are disrupted or the immune system is compromised they can invade and cause disease. Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species, and can cause infections (candidiasis or thrush) in humans and other animals. In winemaking, some species of Candida can potentially spoil wines. C. albicans, which is a normal constituent of the human flora, a commensal of the skin and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, is responsible for the majority of Candida bloodstream infections (candidemia).|
|Distribution||Molds exist inside your home and outside. If you do not become aware of them immediately, they can spread rapidly and infest many places in your home. To be able to distinguish what kind of mold is growing in your home, it is recommended that you get a sample and have it tested.|
|Comments||There are about forty types of Cladosporium mold. You can find this mold in the vicinity of potted plants. They flourish in the dirt and rotting plants. There are times though that Cladosporium can materialize as plant parasites.
As reported by researchers, Cladosporium spores circulate within the air throughout the whole year. Although, small numbers of this type of mold exist throughout the colder months. They come out in large numbers throughout the warmer months, especially summertime; with day-to-day measurements extending from two thousand to fifty thousand spores per cubic meters of air. The development of various Cladosporium types inside of homes and other structures varies according to the amount of Cladosporium mold which exists outside. Also, the amount of this kind of mold may be affected by where and what items the mold is growing on inside.
Cladosporium mold grows on walls inside your home after molds like Aspergillus versicolor, Wallemia sebi, and some types of Penicillium have initially developed on. It develops on damp or moist construction materials used for your home which could consist of acrylic paints, plasterboard, water-logged wood, and damp insulation inside of cooling systems. Four typical types of Cladosporium molds are macrocarpum, cladosporioides, sphaerospermum, and herbarum.
|Distribution||C. lunata is reported from numerous, mostly monocotyledonous host plants in many tropical countries but also from Canada, the British Isles, France and the Netherlands. Curvularia is a facultative pathogen and may cause leaf spots and seedling blight. It is also seen on castor beans, cotton, rice, barley, wheat, and corn.|
|Comments||Curvularia is an endosymbiote of panic grass that enables it to thrive near hot springs in soil temperatures of up to 104°F (40° C). The fungus confers this protective effect only when itself infected by the Curvularia thermal tolerance virus. Plants unrelated to panic grass also experience this protective effect when inoculated with the virus-infected fungus.|
|Distribution||Helminthosporium almost always occurs seasonally and the spores are released on dry, hot days.|
|Comments||H. halodes is found worldwide in aerobiological surveys. Helminthosporium almost always occurs seasonally and the spores are released on dry, hot days. Species of Helminthosporium are best known as parasites of cereals and grasses. It is frequently isolated from grains, grasses, sugar cane, soil and textiles.|
|Distribution||The fungus, which was characterized by culture and morphology, was found to grow well at 37 degrees C in Sabouraud and potato dextrose agars and in liquid asparagine medium, in which it produced very few spores; at 40 degrees C, it survived for 3 weeks. Different levels of pathogenicity were shown by the fungus when 3-week-old bean, corn, and tomato plants were inoculated. Controlled experiments in which an inoculum of F. solani was instilled in rabbit eyes were also carried out; it evoked a clinical reaction producing irritation and erythema. The F. solani isolated from eyes was the same species as that isolated by an agar plate method with Fusarium-selective medium from sugar cane, bean, tomato, or corn fields throughout December 1976 to November 1977.|
|Comments||Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants. Most species are harmlesssaprobes, and are relatively abundant members of the soil microbial community. Some species produce mycotoxins in cereal crops that can affect human and animal health if they enter the food chain. The main toxins produced by these Fusarium species are fumonisinsand trichothecenes.
The name of Fusarium comes from Latin fusus, meaning a spindle.
|Distribution||The Zygomycete species were isolated occasionally from flowers and immature fruits, but increased markedly on ripe fruits late in the season. In contrast, Botrytis cinerea was present at consistently high levels on strawberry flowers and fruits from the onset of flowering to the end of the harvesting season. This difference in distribution is due to the susceptibility of strawberry flowers and fruits at all stages of development to infection by Botrytis, whereas the Zygomycetes are only able to infect ripe and damaged white fruits. All species showed a greater potential to infect from a food base compared to a spore inoculum, and damaged fruits were invariably more susceptible to infection than undamaged fruits. The incidence of Mucor piriformis on flowers and fruits increased noticeably when rainsplash occurred, indicating the presence of this species in the soil and debris.|
|Comments||Colonies of this fungal genus are typically coloured white to beige or grey and are fast-growing. Colonies on culture medium may grow to several centimetres in height. Older colonies become grey to brown in colour due to the development of spores. Mucor spores or sporangiospores can be simple or branched and form apical, globular sporangia that are supported and elevated by a column-shaped columella. Mucor species can be differentiated from moulds of the genera Albsidia, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus by the shape and insertion of the columella, and the lack of rhizoids. Some Mucor species produce chlamydospores.|
|Distribution||While Aspergillus species tend to frequent warmer tropical regions, Penicillium have the greatest proportion of their species growing in temperate areas. Commonly found in house dust. Penicillium species are most commonly found in soils, cellulose materials (plants, wood, paper, etc.), foods, grains, and compost piles. Indoors Penicillium can be associated with carpet, wallpaper, organic substances, and is also known to grow within fiberglass duct insulation. Grows in water damaged buildings on wallpaper, wallpaper glue, decaying fabrics, moist chipboards, and behind paint. Also found in blue rot of apples, dried foodstuffs, cheeses, fresh herbs, spices, dry cereals, nuts, onions, and oranges. Often found growing outside in soil, decaying plant debris, compost piles and fruit rot. Often found growing indoors on water damaged building materials as well as on food items (dried foods, cheeses, fruits, herbs, spices, cereals)|
|Comments||Penicillium species can cause allergic and asthmatic reaction in susceptible individuals. Common allergenic effects are: Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma),Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Cheese washer’s lung, Woodman’s lung, Moldy wall hypersensitivity.|
|Distribution||Phoma Sacc. is an ubiquitous fungus, which has been reported from plants, soil, human beings, animals, and air.|
|Comments||Mould growth may occur on fermented meat products. Spores are colorless and unicellular. The pycnidia are black and depressed in the tissues of the host. Phoma is arbitrarily limited to those species in which the spores are less than 15 um as the larger spored forms have been placed in the genusMacrophoma. The most important species include Phoma beta which is the cause of the heart rot and blight of beets,Phoma batata that produces a dry rot of sweet potato, and Phoma solani.
The secondary metabolites secreted by some species of Phoma are antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-HIV. Equisetin and Phomasetin obtained from species of Phoma are useful against AIDS. The main goal of the present review is to discuss secondary metabolite production by species of Phoma and their utilization as antibiotics and as biocontrol agents.
|Distribution||It is a common outdoor mold, found on leaves. The spores reside on leaves with no effect until the leaves begin to die, at which time A. pullulans begins its role in the decaying process. Indoors, A. pullulans prefers wet surfaces with free water – shower curtains, tile grout and caulking. It will grow on wood, leather and cloth, and also can do very well on water-based paints. It can grow on certain foods as well, such as grains and fruits. While in the mildew form, A. pullulans can only become airborne if the water it is in becomes aerosolized, or with mechanical disruption (such as cleaning).|
|Comments||Pullularia, formerly known as Pullularia pullulans, is now correctly named Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans). This mold is a yeast-like fungus, commonly seen as a type of mildew, and does well in cooler environments. Clinically, A. pullulans is recognized as a serious allergen. One study done in Connecticut evaluated 100 patients with allergy and/or asthma with skin testing for mold allergens. A. pullulans produced positive skin test responses in 62 of those patients! Sensitivity to A. pullulans is significantly associated with more severe asthma.|
|Distribution||Fungi can be found throughout the world. They may live or be found in indoor as well as outdoor environments. Fungi are eukaryotic, non-chlorophyllous and heterotrophic organisms that depend on external nutrients and therefore live as saprophytes on non-living organic material, or as invasive pathogens in living tissue.|
|Comments||A mould, which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals. Fungi may have from a unicellular to a dimorphic or filamentous appearance. They are principally dispersed as sexual spores or asexual conidia, and are common components in the atmosphere. In addition, unidentifiable fungal hyphae fragments may be aerosolised in large numbers, which further increases the risk of human exposure through breathing. Unlike many other airborne allergens, fungi are associated with a variety of illnesses besides IgE-mediated allergy. In contrast to pollen, fungi may cause adverse health effects in humans through other harmful immune response, by toxic or irritant effects, or by direct infection. The most prevalent immune disease caused by moulds is type I allergy (asthma and allergic rhinitis), but allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, allergic sinusitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and atopic dermatitis may also occur. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is estimated at 20 to 30% among atopic individuals, and up to 6% in the general population.|